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Awg

The introduction of AWG’s to EPR provided for the first time the possibility to independently tune amplitude and phase of microwave pulses over a certain frequency range which allows to overcome the excitation bandwidth limitations connected with monochromatic rectangular pulses. These new degrees of freedom allow to increase excitation bandwidths and, especially, to shape the excitation profile of microwave pulses. This opens up a new field of possible experiments that are ranging from improvements in Fourier transform (FT) EPR, over novel dipolar spectroscopy experiments like SIFTER (single frequency technique for refocusing dipolar couplings) and CPMG (Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill) DEER (double electron-electron resonance). Together with new orthogonal spin labeling strategies (nitroxide, Gd(III), Cu(II), trityl, etc.) the AWG technology will shape all future applications in EPR. All pulsed spectrometers in our lab are equipped with the Bruker SpinJet (400 MHz bandwidth).